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TED演讲:爱吃烧烤又担心不健康?这样吃!

作者:www.kciattn.cn  时间:2020-08-11

 

演讲者: 劳伦·霍奇、史丽·博斯和娜奥米·沙赫

Lauren Hodge: If you were going to a restaurant and wanted a healthier option, which would you choose, grilled or fried chicken? Now most people would answer grilled, and it's true that grilled chicken does contain less fat and fewer calories. However, grilled chicken poses a hidden danger. The hidden danger is heterocyclic amines -- specifically phenomethylimidazopyridine, or PhIP -- (laughter) which is the immunogenic or carcinogenic compound.

劳伦·霍奇:如果你去饭店,你想吃得健康一点,你会选择哪种食品呢,烤鸡还是炸鸡?多数人都会选择烤鸡,的确,烤鸡含有较少的脂肪和卡路里。但是,烤鸡存在一个潜在的危险,这个潜在的危险是多环胺类——具体的来讲,是phenomethylimidazopyridine, 或者简称为PhIP——是免疫原性或致癌物质的成分。

 

A carcinogen is any substance or agent that causes abnormal growth of cells, which can also cause them to metastasize or spread. They are also organic compounds in which one or more of the hydrogens in ammonia is replaced with a more complex group. Studies show that antioxidants are known to decrease these heterocyclic amines.

致癌物质是任何会导致细胞的异常增长,也会导致细胞的转移和扩张的介质。它们也是有机物氨中的一个或多个氢被替换成更复杂的组成,研究显示抗氧化剂能减少这些杂胺环。

 

However, no studies exist yet that show how or why. These here are five different organizations that classify carcinogens. And as you can see, none of the organizations consider the compounds to be safe, which justifies the need to decrease them in our diet. Now you might wonder how a 13 year-old girl could come up with this idea. And I was led to it through a series of events.

但是,现在还没有研究显示通过如何方式或者为什么。这是五个不同的组织对致癌物的分类。如同你所看到的,没有任何一个组织认为该组成物是安全的,就是说我们需要在饮食中减少对它们的摄入。现在你可能会问一个13岁的女孩怎么会想到这一点。是一系列的事件将我引导至此的。

 

I first learned about it through a lawsuit I read about in my doctor's office -- which was between the Physician's Committee for Responsible Medicine and seven different fast food restaurants. They weren't sued because there was carcinogens in the chicken, but they were sued because of California's Proposition 65, which stated that if there's anything dangerous in the products then the companies had to give a clear warning.

首先,是我在医生那里听到的一个诉讼案——是关于责任医学委员会和七个不同的快餐店之间的诉讼。快餐店被告并不是因为在鸡肉中有致癌物质,而是因为加利福尼亚州65号提案,提案要求如果产品中有任何有害成分,公司应该给出明确的警告。

 

So I was very surprised about this. And I was wondering why nobody knew more about this dangerous grilled chicken, which doesn't seem very harmful. But then one night, my mom was cooking grilled chicken for dinner, and I noticed that the edges of the chicken, which had been marinated in lemon juice, turned white.

我对此很惊讶,我很奇怪为什么没有人知道有害烤鸡,虽然它们看起来不那么有害。但是一天晚上,晚餐时我妈妈在烤鸡,我注意到鸡肉的边缘,经过柠檬汁的浸泡,变白了。

 

And later in biology class, I learned that it's due to a process called denaturing, which is where the proteins will change shape and lose their ability to chemically function. So I combined these two ideas and I formulated a hypothesis, saying that, could possibly the carcinogens be decreased due to a marinade and could it be due to the differences in PH?

后来在生物课上,我学到这是由于一种叫变性的过程,就是蛋白质会改变形态,失去它们化学性功能。所以,我将两种想法综合在一起,创造了一个假说,那就是,因为酸碱度的改变,致癌物很可能因为腌泡汁的浸泡而降低?

 

So my idea was born, and I had the project set up and a hypothesis, so what was my next step? Well obviously I had to find a lab to work at because I didn't have the equipment in my school. I thought this would be easy, but I emailed about 200 different people within a five-hour radius of where I lived, and I got one positive response that said that they could work with me.

这就是我的想法诞生的过程,然后,我就有了项目的开展和假说,那么我的下一步呢?很明显的,我要找到一家实验室,因为我在学校没有实验设备。我以为这会很容易,但是我给200多个人写邮件,那些人离我居住的地方开车5个小时的范围内,我只得到了一个正面的回复,说愿意帮助我。

 

Most of the others either never responded back, said they didn't have the time or didn't have the equipment and couldn't help me. So it was a big commitment to drive to the lab to work multiple times. However, it was a great opportunity to work in a real lab -- so I could finally start my project.

更多的人要么根本不回复,说他们没时间,要么就是没有设备,帮不了我。所以说,这是一个很重的承诺,要多次开车去实验室开展实验。但是,这是一个可以在真正的实验室工作的绝好机会——我也得以最终开始我的项目。

 

The first stage was completed at home, which consisted of marinating the chicken, grilling the chicken, amassing it and preparing it to be transported to the lab. The second stage was completed at the Penn State University main campus lab, which is where I extracted the chemicals, changed the PH so I could run it through the equipment and separated the compounds I needed from the rest of the chicken.

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